Wimpfen is situated opposite the mouth of the river Jagst at the borderline of the regions of Kraichgau, the Hohenlohe plains and the Neckar basin. Early settlement is unclear, but from the 5th century BC onwards small inhabited areas and early stoneage villages can be traced. Important the early settlement, besides the good soil, was its closeness to an ancient people’s road which. Coming from France, this crossed the Neckar and thence continued in two directions: one towards the east between Jagst and Kocher via Nuremburg and the other towards southeastern Europe from Öhringen to the Danube. This was the road of the Nibelungs, if historical tales are to be believed.
Around 450 BC, a new people came to the fore who brought forth an important culture in the central Neckar area for the first time: the Celts. They are thought to have given the rivers in this area their names (Kocher and Jagst) and probably also Wimpfen. According to Obermüller (German-Celtic Dictionary, Leipzig 1872) the name of Wimpfen consists of „uimpe“ (walled–in) and „bin“ (mountain), meaning „walled-in mountain“ or „wall on the mountain“. A Celtic castle is supposed to have existed on the „Altenberg“, but there is no archeological evidence. Roman historians later on recorded Germanic Suebi Nicreti (Swabians of the Neckar) having settled here.